Manual Endocrine System

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The glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release affect almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.
Table of contents



The parathyroid glands play an important role in the regulation of the body's calcium balance. The thymus is located in the upper part of the chest and produces white blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells. Adrenal gland.

Hormone Headlines

An adrenal gland is located on top of each kidney. Like many glands, the adrenal glands work hand-in-hand with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The adrenal glands make and release corticosteroid hormones and epinephrine that maintain blood pressure and regulate metabolism. The pancreas is located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.

The pancreas plays a role in digestion, as well as hormone production. Hormones produced by the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, which regulate levels of blood sugar.

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A woman's ovaries are located on both sides of the uterus, below the opening of the fallopian tubes tubes that extend from the uterus to the ovaries. In addition to containing the egg cells necessary for reproduction, the ovaries also produce estrogen and progesterone. A man's testes are located in a pouch that hangs suspended outside the male body.

The testes produce testosterone and sperm. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus make chemicals that control the release of hormones secreted from the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus gathers information sensed by the brain such as the surrounding temperature, light exposure, and feelings and sends it to the pituitary. This information influences the hormones that the pituitary makes and releases. Pituitary: The pituitary puh-TOO-uh-ter-ee gland is at the base of the brain, and is no bigger than a pea.

Despite its small size, the pituitary is often called the "master gland. The pituitary also secretes endorphins en-DOR-fins , chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain.

Hormonal (endocrine) system

The pituitary also secretes hormones that signal the reproductive organs to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.

Thyroid: The thyroid THY-royd is in the front part of the lower neck. It's shaped like a bow tie or butterfly. These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to make energy. The more thyroid hormone there is in the bloodstream, the faster chemical reactions happen in the body. Thyroid hormones are important because they help kids' and teens' bones grow and develop, and they also play a role in the development of the brain and nervous system.

Parathyroids: Attached to the thyroid are four tiny glands that work together called the parathyroids par-uh-THY-roydz. They release parathyroid hormone, which controls the level of calcium in the blood with the help of calcitonin kal-suh-TOE-nin , which the thyroid makes. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which makes a set of hormones and has a different function:.

Hormone Headlines

Pineal: The pineal pih-NEE-ul body, also called the pineal gland, is in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin meh-luh-TOE-nin , a hormone that may help regulate when we sleep at night and wake in the morning. Reproductive Glands: The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. In boys the male gonads , or testes TES-teez , are in the scrotum.


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